The world is increasingly looking at the developing nations as potential markets and is

eagerly waiting to see how the nations perform in the coming years. An efficient trans-

portation system is essential for a country’s development especially in urban areas that

contribute to the majority of GDP of a country. The world today is increasingly urbanized.

The challenge of growing population, and increase of vehicle ownership and usage casts a

worrying shadow over projected emission of global greenhouse gases. It is roughly estimated

that half the global population lives in cities. By 2030, it is projected that developing na-

tions would have more vehicles than developed nations. Developing economies have been a

prominent player in the game of rapid urbanization and its consequent irrevocable climate

change impact. Booming economy, car manufacturers inflow to India, aspirations to own

a car, increasing distances, comfort and safety, governments encouraging policies (open car

market, easy loan schemes), etc. are a few reasons for increasing motorization at a rapid

rate. In terms of an increase in motorization rates, India has registered a rapid growth,

between 1997 and 2003, of two-wheeler contributing 40 percent of total vehicle population.

The total number of motor vehicles in India has increased from 1.86 million in 1971 to 67

million in 2003. Motorized two-wheeler (motorcycles, scooters, mopeds) account for over

70 percent of the total registered fleet that will clearly impact carbon monoxide (CO) and

hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. However, developing nations still posses the capacity for sus-

tainable future in contrast to developed nations. Public and non-motorized transport still

forms the major mode of traveling. Unfortunately, the quality of these modes is often quite

poor with regard to level-of-service, security, comfort, and convenience. The sum effect of

inadequate public transport and difficult conditions for walking and cycling implies that

most developing-city citizens will move to private motorized vehicles as soon as it is eco-

nomically viable for them to do so. The basic function of a transport system is to provide

mobility, flexibility to people, and accessibility to places. A sustainable transport system

must offer mobility and accessibility to all urban residents in a secure and eco-friendly mode

of transport. Fundamentally more efficient and sustainable transport systems in developing

nations should emphasize preservation, improvement of existing modes, encouraging modal

shift towards sustainable modes, and implementing proper planning measures.