## ABSTRACT

In 1807, Joseph Fourier developed a method that could represent a signal with a series of coefficients based on an analysis function. The mathematical basis of Fourier transform led to the development of wavelet transform in later stages. Alfred Haar, in his PhD thesis in 1910 [1], was the first person to mention wavelets. The superiority of Haar basis function (varying on scale/frequency) to Fourier basis functions was found by Paul Levy in 1930. The area of wavelets has been extensively studied and developed from the 1970s. Jean Morlet, who was working as a geophysical engineer in an oil company, wanted to analyse a signal that had a lot of information in time as well as frequency. With the intention of having a good frequency resolution at low-frequency components, he could have used narrow-band short-time Fourier transform. On the other hand, in order to obtain good time resolution corresponding to highfrequency components, he could also have opted for broad-band shorttime Fourier transform. However, aiming for one meant losing the other, and Morlet did not want to lose any of this information. Morlet used a smooth Gaussian window (representing a cosine waveform) and chose to compress this window in time to get a higher-frequency component or spread it to capture a lower-frequency component. In fact, he shifted these functions in time to cover the whole time range of interest. Thus, his analysis consisted of two most important criteria – dilation (in frequency) and translation (in time) – which form the basis of wavelet transform. Morlet called his wavelets ‘wavelets of constant shape’, which later was changed by other researchers only to ‘wavelets’. J.O. Stromberg [2] and later Yves Meyer [3] constructed orthonormal wavelet basis functions. Alex Grossmann and Jean Morlet in 1981 [4] derived the transformation method to decompose a signal into wavelet coefficients and reconstruct the original signal again. In 1986, Stephen Mallat and Yves Meyer developed multiresolution analysis using wavelets [3, 5, 6], which later in 1998 was used by Daubechies to construct her own family of wavelets. In

of wavelets starting from Morlet through Grossmann, Mallat, Meyer, Battle and Lemarié to Coifman, from the 1970s through mid-1990s. A pool of academicians, including pure mathematicians, engineers, theoretical and applied physicists, geophysical specialists and many others, have developed various kinds of wavelets to serve specific or general purposes as and when needed. Thus, though initiated mainly by the mathematicians, wavelets have gained immense popularity in all fields of applied sciences and engineering due to their unique time-frequency localization feature. It is due to this unique property that the wavelet transform has proved its ability (and reliability) in analysing nonstationary processes to reveal apparently hidden information that no other tool could provide. The application areas are wide, e.g. geophysics, astrophysics, image analysis, signal processing, telecommunication systems, speech processing, denoising, image compression and so forth. The wavelets have been applied analysing vibration signals. Some special techniques like discrete and fast wavelet transforms have been developed for this purpose. Before going into the discussion on wavelet analytic technique any further, it would be wise to review the basic theory on Fourier transform at this point.