Modern life in the developed world was made possible by fossil fuels. Coal, natural gas, and oil enabled our Industrial Revolution, our era of rapid technological advances, and our leap into the twenty-first century. We have a seemingly insatiable thirst for energy. Access to these natural resources drives population affluence and political intrigue. e earth currently supports a population of seven billion people, all of whom consume these nonrenewable resources. In the United States and other developed countries, we each of us consume approximately 250 kWh/day.1 Worldwide, our energy needs in 2001 were ~13.5 TW.2 Although this may be offset somewhat by advancing technologies with improved and improving efficiency, it is predicted that our energy needs will still continue to increase. Developing nations are beginning to consume in increasing amounts. e world’s population is expected to continue to grow over the next several decades before stabilizing at nine billion people by 2050 when our needs will reach an estimated 27 TW or more.2