A wide range of materials, products and techniques involve the use of Portland-type cements and a number of these are discussed in this chapter. The related materials, lime and gypsum, both of which pre-date Portland cement, are considered in Chapter 9. The choice and grouping of the topics chosen illustrate how petrography can be applied to such materials is not intended to be exhaustive, while some overlap with previous chapters has been necessary to ensure that each topic is adequately covered.