ABSTRACT

Reference Ranges ........................................................................................................................... 827 Sources of Variation in Laboratory Measurements ....................................................................... 830

Age-Related Changes ................................................................................................................ 831 Strain and Gender Differences .................................................................................................. 832 Effect of Diet ............................................................................................................................. 833 Excitement and Stress ............................................................................................................... 834 Choice of Collection Site and Use of Anesthesia ...................................................................... 835 Artifacts .................................................................................................................................... 837

Due to Hemolysis ................................................................................................................. 837 Due to Multiple Bleeding Intervals ...................................................................................... 837 Due to Urine Collection Procedures .................................................................................... 837

Clinical Pathology Tests and Interpretations ................................................................................. 838 Hematology ............................................................................................................................... 838

Erythrocytes ......................................................................................................................... 838 Leukocytes ........................................................................................................................... 841 Platelets ................................................................................................................................844 Coagulation .......................................................................................................................... 845

Clinical Chemistry .................................................................................................................... 845 Carbohydrate, Lipids, and Proteins ......................................................................................846 Renal Function .....................................................................................................................848 Liver Function and Hepatocyte Injury ................................................................................. 850 Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus ..................................................................................... 854 Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride ........................................................................................854