The world is facing an unprecedented dual challenge of enhancing food security while ensuring environmental sustainability, in particular the conservation of a natural resources base (soil and water) and genetic (plant and animal) resources. The present world population of 7 billion will exceed 9 billion by 2050 (UN-DESA 2013). The majority of this population increase will occur in underdeveloped and developing countries that already face food shortages. Simplistically, a 60% increase in the current agricultural productivity will be required from existing available resources (land and water) to feed the growing human population. Worldwide soil degradation is currently estimated at 1.9 billion hectares and is increasing at a rate of 5 to 7 million hectares each year (Lal 2006). This soil and land degradation causes not only a productivity decline and biodiversity loss but also affects vital soil/water ecosystem services, all of which are intricately linked with long-term social, economic, and environmental impacts (Bruinsma 2003; UNEP 2010). Moreover, several environmental drivers also affect land and water resources. Among these, major impacts are related to climate change and variability (Nguyen et al. 2011). All of these are likely to have negative impacts and induce changes on agroecosystems, thus placing increased pressures on dwindling land and water resources to produce sufficient food for present and future generations (Lal 2004; Verchot and Cooper 2008).