Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL) and the relation between the voltage

and current of the circuit element, like Ohm’s law. Then we find unknown voltages and currents by solving them. Actually, a method like this can be applicable for averaged voltages and currents of circuit elements that are even if nonlinear or time invariant. After demonstrating that KVL and KCL holds for the averaged voltages and currents of nonlinear circuit elements, equivalent devices for the averaged model are derived and the analysis procedure is described. Then the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of a buck converter in continuous conduction mode (CCM) and

discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) are analyzed.