DOI link for Manufacturing
This chapter illustrates the cutting methods and explains some of the manufacturing variables of each that can be significant in a forensic examination. The vast majority of shoes encountered in forensic examination are those formed in a mold cavity although, some may be subjected to additional trimming or grinding after leaving the mold. A wide variety of outsole designs are typically produced and sold by separate companies in the form of premolded sheets. This is evident when they view the countless number of designs found on cut sole flip-flops and beach shoes. Another method of cutting outsoles is achieved with the Wellman outsole cutting machine, patented in 1931 by the Wellman Company of Medford, Massachusetts. Some calender rollers are designed to produce outsole material thicker in the heel area providing a slightly raised heel, while others produce material with a flat profile of the same design for the entire outsole.