Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus in the genus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae, is responsible for causing foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, or hoof-and-mouth disease) in cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, water buffaloes, pigs, sheep, and goats, and about 70 wildlife species. Characterized by a transient high fever (for 2-3 days), formation of blisters inside the mouth and on the feet, and lameness, FMD causes enormous economical losses in animal production through culling, trade restriction, and prevention measures.