Equine infectious anemia (EIA) has an almost worldwide distribution and is considered to be a signicant threat to the equine industry as evidenced by the fact that it is one of the 11 notiable equine-specic diseases listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Disease signs in horses consistent with EIA were rst described in 18431 with a more comprehensive account of each clinical phase coupled with the demonstration that it is a blood-borne infection published by Vallée and Carré.2 Moreover, these authors established that EIA was caused by a “lterable agent” making it one of the rst diseases recognized as having a viral etiology (equine infectious anemia virus [EIAV]).