LIV is classied within the order Mononegavirales, family Flaviviridae, and genus Flavivirus . Viruses within this genus are transmitted by vectors, particularly arthropods. The most prominent members are transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. LIV is grouped with the tick-borne viruses and is transmitted by the common sheep tick, I. ricinus. It is closely related to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), which as its name suggests is a collection of viruses transmitted by hard ticks and causes encephalitis . The TBEV complex of viruses has been considered by some authors as forming a single virus species consisting of a number of types . These viruses are found along a global cline coincident with temperate latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere .