In recent decades, there has been a worldwide resurgence of viral pathogens transmitted by arthropods (arboviruses), particularly those transmitted by mosquitoes. Diseases caused by many of them (e.g., dengue, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Chikungunya) constitute a major health problem of high impact in temperate and subtropical regions of the world [1,2]. The emergence of these viruses is usually associated with variants that have recently evolved, although the current knowledge shows that most are zoonotic arboviruses with specic ecological niches, residing naturally in wild animal species (hosts). Access to other host populations, such as domestic animals and humans, is a consequence of multiple factors, including environmental and ecological changes (relating to the structure of the soil, wildlife, animal migration, vector distribution, human migration, and trafcking of pets) as well as viral RNA genome plasticity.