Arthropod-borne diseases like Akabane disease, AH abnormalities of the calves, were rst reported in Australia in 1951-1955,2 but viral isolation was not attempted in that case. In 1959, the JaGAr39 strain, a reference strain of AKAV, was rst isolated from mosquitoes (Aedes vexans and Culex tritaeniorhynchus) in Akabane village of the Gunma Prefecture, Japan, by the survey of Aedes arboviruses.3,4 The rst impact of the virus was reported in 1974 in Australia, in 1972-1975 in Japan, and in 1969-1970 in Israel,1,5,6and outbreaks of the disease have occurred in Japan, Israel, Turkey, and Australia.6-8 In Japan, more than 42,000 congenital abnormalities, abortions, stillbirths, and premature births were caused in cattle.1 Furthermore, AKAV has been detected in many tropical and subtropical regions,9-13 and consequently, AKAV is widely distributed throughout Australia, Southeast Asia, East Asia, the Middle East, and Africa.