Drawing on this original framing, CSA has been applied to diverse aspects of agriculture, ranging from field-scale agricultural practices to food supply chains and food systems generally. Beyond agricultural practices and outcomes, a wide array of institutions, policies, finance, safety nets, capacity-building and assessment have all been identified as enabling CSA. Following the Second Global Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change in Hanoi in 2012, the recently published Climate-Smart Agri-culture Sourcebook further advanced the concept with the intention of benefiting primarily smallholder farmers and vulnerable people in developing countries [4].