Portfolios are executed through the implementation of programs, as well as individual projects linked to the portfolio. This chapter focuses on how to plan and implement programs. Programs consist of a collection of interdependent projects to produce outcomes and realize the required benefits. Outcomes and benefits result from changes in business operations. There are a couple of techniques used for benefits identification during portfolio management and program management. These techniques can include the creation of the following: Benefits Logic Map, Results Chain, and Benefits Map. The Program Mandate informs why the change initiative could be considered to be run as a program. As a part of the program mandate ratification, top management also constitutes the Program Governance Board. The Program Governance Board is the highest decision-making body within the program lifecycle. The program lifecycle can be divided into four main phases: program initiation, program definition, program execution, and program closure.