18.1 The effective management of health and safety should be an integral part of the management of any business, whatever its size or work activities. Risk assessment and the implementation of appropriate control measures (through the application of the ‘management cycle’ (see 8.3: THE management cycle)) must inevitably form an essential part of any health and safety management programme. This chapter seeks to demonstrate the benefits to businesses of assessing and managing risks effectively and the costs of failing to do so.