We have considered Japan’s new regional policy and relations by examining two arguments: (1) there has been a shift in the nature of Japanese policy, more precisely Japan has showed more interest in taking greater initiative independent of US policy, not only economically but increasingly politically; and (2) Japanese foreign policy has been characterised by a low-profile and incremental style, which makes for far greater effectiveness than often realised. As far as the latter is concerned, the last chapter comprehensively outlined the evidence presented in this book, and concluded that Japan has been quietly pursuing definite strategies, and that Japanese policymakers have acknowledged that this style suits Japan in realising its policy objectives given the various constraints imposed on it. This concluding chapter will review the results of the investigation of the former argument, followed by a conclusion about Japan’s contemporary regional policy.