In the modern era of urban public policy, which coincides with the Civil Rights movement and the War on Poverty, the main characteristic defining relations between the planning profession and the Chicana/o community was an acute lack of political inclusion. In coalition with urban elites, planners solidified the dominance of local urban policy cartels that actively excluded Chicanas/os from meaningful decision-making roles on land use, redevelopment, and planning issues. Through 1975 this exclusion resulted in regressive land use policies and uneven development in barrios and colonias.