Suburban expansion after World War II would eventually complicate the economy and social characteristics of urban barrios. However, during the initial period of suburban sprawl, Chicana/o homeowners remained shackled by both state and private sector discriminatory policies that severely limited residential choice. The housing demand produced by this residential apartheid (Massey and Denton 1993; Lopez 1986) created socio-political barriers that ensured that overcrowded, underdeveloped barrios remained central to regional spatial logic.