Bismarck’s departure marked the end of an era, but the country which he had done so much to create was already very different from what it had been twenty years before. This contributed to the impression that in Bismarck’s final decade political stagnation had cast a pall over a fast-moving society. Even in much of the standard historiography the extent to which Germany had already been transformed into an industrial society in 1890 is often not sufficiently emphasized. The Reich, which in 1871 had had a population of 41 million, had nearly 50 million in 1890. Urbanization was proceeding apace: fifty towns in the west of Germany, which in 1871 had a combined population of 2.63 million and therefore an average of 52,600, had by 1890 4.11 million and an average of 82,200. The proportion of the population living in cities of over 100,000 had risen from 4.8 to 12.1 per cent (see Appendix: Table 4). This was not only the result of a large absolute increase in the population, but of a huge east-west migration, from the agrarian to the industrial regions. Between 1880 and 1910 220,000 left East Prussia, 150,000 left the Posen province and 100,000 left West Prussia. In 1907 24 per cent of those born in these provinces had moved to other parts of the Reich, mostly the Ruhr and Greater Berlin. In the period 1870 to 1874, 33.8 per cent of the net domestic product came from industry, mining and transport, 37.9 per cent from agriculture and 8.15 from the tertiary sector (see Appendix: Table 2). The equivalent figures for 1890/4 are 40.6, 32.3 and 8.7 per cent, with most of the tertiary sector being related to industry. In spite of the slumps of the 1870s and 1880s the index of industrial production rose from 18.8 in 1870 to 39.9 in 1890 (1913 = 100), while total production rose from 29.2 to 48.7 (see Appendix: Table 8). Yet politically and ideologically there was a refusal to acknowledge the extent of the transformation.