In Chapters 2 and 3 we surveyed Rousseau’s history of human nature. This history falls into four broad phases. First is the state of nature, where men are dominated by amour de soi, hence are psychologically incapable of social interaction. Second is nascent society, where men begin to experience amour propre, hence develop the needs and skills required for social existence. The third and fourth phases represent alternative paths towards full-scale society, along which evolve different constellations of these two main forms of self-love. The third represents the path that mankind has taken, into society as it is, where men are dominated by amour propre. The fourth represents the path men could have taken (but have not) into society as it could be, where amour de soi and amour propre are reconfigured into patriotism.