So far we have traced the emergence of man from the state of nature into nascent society. At the core of this process is an evolution of human nature: man’s original constitution as a solitary creature marked by amour de soi is supplanted by his need, due to amour propre, for other people. These two basic configurations of self-love account for the general character of human interactions in the two epochs. In the state of nature there are no stable associations; man’s selfishness makes cooperation impossible. In nascent society there are more regular contacts between people: they live in families, which are grouped together in primitive villages, and there are recurring (if infrequent) instances of cooperation which leave a psychological trace in feelings of benevolence. The psychological developments at the beginning of nascent society thus construct socialized self-interest; the experience of living in nascent society activates it. The period of nascent society, therefore, has the effect of preparing man for the next phase of social evolution-either to the unpleasant reality Rousseau criticized throughout his works or to the ideal he offers in The Social Contract and elsewhere. In this chapter we will trace the development of human nature through the culmination of nascent society, and then review the distinct forms it takes along the divergent paths to society as it is and society as it could be.