The issue of causality and, hence, predictability has exercised the minds of researchers considerably (Smith 1991: 177). One response has been in the operation of control, and it finds its apotheosis in the experimental design. If rival causes or explanations can be eliminated from a study then clear causality can be established; the model can explain outcomes. Smith (1991: 177) claims the high ground for the experimental approach, arguing that it is the only method that directly concerns itself with causality; this, clearly is contestable, as we make clear in Part Three of this book.