There are those who seek meaning in human history on the mountain tops, and those who find it on the plains. Their quest is the driving force in

history. Although many suggestions have been made, there is little consensus on this central issue. Some have suggested that the driving force is imposed upon human society from the outside through accumulating random shocks or major changes in the physical environment. Others reject the idea that human society is driven by some great cosmic lottery and maintain that we should investigate man and his society. Yet even here there is disagreement. Does mankind respond to spiritual, intellectual, political, or economic forces? Each has its supporters among those in the shadow of the Tower.