For as long as human beings have stood upright on the Earth, their performance and skills have been measured. For Neanderthal men and women, assessment would have been in quite a different form than it is in classrooms and other educational settings today, but assessment of human competence and versatility nevertheless is as old as the human race. That Neanderthal families existed was a measure of how successful, creative, and 'intelligent' the family members were. Gathering food, trapping animals and fish, protecting themselves from hostile neighbours, and avoiding being eaten themselves, was an indicator of their mastery over the environment. The Aboriginal peoples of Australia - arguably the oldest civilisation - also attest to the achievements, accomplishments, and intelligence of several nations of people who have settled both desolate, barren land and lush and fertile country, and skilfully survived.