Erzurum: A Border City of East Anatolia
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The city of Erzurum, on the down slopes of Mount Palandoken, lies over an inclined territory at an altitude of from 1850 to 1900 meters. The Romans probably built the castle of the city during the years 415-422 AD in defense against Persian attacks directed at Anatolia. The city, called Karin by the Armenians, was later named Theodosiopolis after the Byzantine Emperor Theodosios. In 653, during the time of the Caliph Uthman, his anny conquered the city, and it is cited as Kalikala or Kali in the Islamic Source readings.