ABSTRACT

One object of quite extraordinary interest was found in the upper filling of one of the multiple graves; here there had been some disturbance and it was difficult to be sure whether the object in question belonged to the grave or must be associated with the later rubbish introduced at the time of the disturbance, in which case it would be of Sargonid date. It was a steatite seal; circular, engraved with a figure of. a humped bull done in the style of Mohenjo-daro and with an inscription in the characters of the Indus Valley. We had had evidence of contacts between Dr and India at an earlier date, for in the Royal Cemetery we had found beads of carnelian on which were geometrical patterns artificially bleached by a chemical process, exactly corresponding to examples from Mohenjo-daro, and it was inconceivable that the invention should have been made independently in the two countries at more or less the same time; at Dr we do not find such beads in any later setting, but in India the craft has been practised right down to the present day. Little things like beads can of course be carried far afield, passed from hand to hand, and their occurrence does not necessarily mean direct con-

tact between the two countries concerned. But it is different with a thing so strictly personal as a seal: and when we find, as we do, that from the Sargonid period on quite a number of them occur, sometimes real imports from India, sometimes imitation of Indian seals made by Sumerian craftsmen, then the conclusion is certain. By Sargon's time, if not before (as theseal from the tomb suggests) trade between Sumer and the Indus Valley had attained such proportions that Indian business firms at Mohenjo-daro or other towns there found it worth while to have their Indian agents in residence in the towns of the Euphrates Valley.