THE SECOND ZOLLVEREIN CRISIS, 1860–1865
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THE SECOND ZOLLVEREIN CRISIS, 1860–1865 book
The 'sixties, in which Bismarck rose to power in Prussia and challenged Austria, were on the whole a period of prosperity in Germany. The continued production of gold from California
and elsewhere kept up the price leveI. Credit was plentiful and manufacturers were able to open up new markets. Communications continued to improve. By 1865 there were nearly 8700 miles of railways in Germany. A rapid recovery was made after the crisis of 1857 and some of the lessons of that depression were taken to heart. The Anglo-French commercial treaty of 1860 was the first of an important series of agreements in Western Europe which led to substantial reductions in import duties. Never before or since has commerce had to contend with fewer tariff barriers than in the 'sixties.