THE recognition of the independence of Brazil might be considered as akin to that of the Spanish-American Republics_ In 1822 both Spanish and Portuguese Colonies were in successful revolt, and neither could have been subdued by the Mother Country alone_ In reality the cases were very different_ The Spanish Colonies at the beginning of that year were all avowedly democratic republics. They had no sort of recognised connection with England, for it was not till June 1822 that Castlereagh recognised the Spanish-American commercial flags, or till October 1823 that Canning sent consuls to them. Brazil, moreover, was not republican, and already had her commercial flag, in fact, recognised. She was monarchical in government, she had been until 1821 the seat of the King of Portugal, and though in 1822 she declared Pedro an Emperor and his dominion independent, she still obeyed a descendant of the House of Braganza. Further, the Emperor was the eldest son of the King of Portugal, and might (and did) ultimately inherit both crowns. The Brazilian trade had been legally, and not tacitly, open to British shipping for half a generation before 1822, and commercial intercourse, facilitated by the presence of a British Consul-General, could not be interrupted by Portugal. The Britis,h Consul· General remained after the declaration of independence, practically as a political agent. Lastly, while Spain had rejected English mediation between her and her Colonies, Portugal herself invited England to use her • good offices' with Brazil. In a quite peculiar way Brazil's destiny

was bound up with those of Portugal, of Europe, and, above all, of England. For, while Spain had no claims on England, Portugal had a treaty· right to British protection. Canning did not admit that it extended to her Colonies, but he con· sidered that it gave her a general moral claim upon England.