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Basra, the furthest of the three vilayets of Ottoman Iraq from the centre of the Empire, and the nearest to the independent rulers of the Arabian Peninsula and the Gulf, was the leader of the anti-Turkish and reformist movement in Iraq. Mosul, on the other hand, ruled by families that supported the old regime, conservative 'ulama' and Kurds, was the least enthusiastic of the three vilayets about participating in these trends. Baghdad, in the middle, was divided into a number of streams: pro-Turks (CUP members, liberals and supporters of the old regime), religious leaders who focused on pan-Islamic and anti-Christian ideas, and decentralists.