The documents presented in this chapter reflect the crisis and contradictions that overtook both the traditional and the neo-traditional (that is, the ‘religious’ and ‘secular’) forms of Jewish life in Ukraine after the Second World War. Among the causes of crisis were demographic catastrophe and the terrible loss in Jewish social and material resources during the war, and the eruption of ‘social’ antisemitism, both during the war and soon after it. This antisemitism informed the increasing efforts of the Ukrainian Communist authorities to prevent any revival of local Jewish communal life and development of its infrastructure.