ABSTRACT

The renunciation in the mid-1950s by the Soviet establishment, including its Ukrainian chapter, of the more odious aspects of Stalinist ideology and political practice did not include a serious reconsideration of its Jewish policies. At the same time, however, Soviet leaders in both Moscow and Kiev felt compelled to eliminate the more extreme forms of state antisemitism characteristic of the previous period. And so, the Jewish policies of the Ukrainian authorities remained contradictory. This is manifest, for instance, in the approval of new Jewish religious community activities and closure of synagogues shortly thereafter; in the liberalization of policy regarding emigration to Israel and new measures for its prevention; on attempts to repress reports of Jewish non-loyalty to the Communist regime at the same time that antisemitic campaigns were being waged in the media; and, finally, in a new round of openly antisemitic trials in the early 1960s.