By 1969 for some time many Republicans, many previously inactive, had been preparing provisionally for what seemed the inevitable: a break by dissenters with the Dublin GHQ. Many throughout the movement hoped there would be no overt break. Some in Dublin GHQ, on the other hand, sought such a break as a release from ancient error. These, the more politically concerned, felt that the loss of the old guard, the traditionalists, would be no real loss, just as many of that old guard felt the only way to husband the Republican dream would be to expel those who had already discarded the ideals in exchange for tactics long proven invalid. Most of the GHQ saw a struggle between the old and the new, the way forward and the way back; those who opposed the new, the means proposed, felt that Dublin was discarding the essence of the movement, the rock on which all else rose: the dream made manifest by recourse to physical force.