Interestingly, the men's avoidance of discussing boarding school trauma increased after the intervention. One possible explanation for this response among the men in this sample is the stigma and shame associated with their more prevalent sexual abuse victimization, particularly for Lakota wicasa (men) who come from a legacy of warriors. Their shame is compounded by their failure, through no fault of their own, to be the protectors of the Oyate (Lakota Nation) and the intervention may have heightened their awareness of their traditional role and their impotence as well as their own victimization at Wounded Knee. Further, Lakota male reaction to trauma may mirror that of African American men who manifested a higher degree of stress in their trauma response (Allen, 1996; Norris, 1992) and hence, more avoidance. In contrast, the women entered the intervention with a greater level of participation in traditional spirituality which probably facilitated greater coping skills (deVries, 1996; Silver & Wilson, 1988).