American children tended to remain in foster care longer and be moved from one foster home to another more frequently than White children (Barsh, 1996). Native American children raised away from their families and communities are often left with little or none of their cultural heritage (Mannes, 1995) and often experience significant social problems which are rooted in a sense of abandonment and ethnic confusion (Barsh, 1996; U.S. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, 1977; 1988).