The Impacts of Commercial Antarctic Tourism
DOI link for The Impacts of Commercial Antarctic Tourism
The Impacts of Commercial Antarctic Tourism book
The impacts of tourism are felt in many destinations around the globe. Inskeep (1991) divides them into environmental and socioeconomic categories. He sees the environment as comprising "all the natural and cultural surroundings of people" (p. 339) and recognizes that "Tourism development and tourist use of an area generate environmental impacts" (ibid.). With regard to the scale of potential impacts, Inskeep writes: "The type and extent of environmental impacts as well as socioeconomic impacts also relate closely to the type and intensity of tourism development that is undertaken" (p. 340). He adds that "Tourism can generate either positive or negative environmental impacts, or no appreciable impact, depending on how its development is planned and managed" (ibid.). Of relevance in the Antarctic context are the positive impacts listed by Inskeep (1991:342-344), which include conservation of important natural areas and archeological and historic sites; improvement of environmental quality; enhancement of the environment; and increasing environmental awareness. The major negative environmental impacts include pollution (water, air, noise, and visual); waste disposal; ecological disruption; environmental hazards; damage to historic sites; and land use problems (pp. 344-347). A conceptual framework of tourism and its impacts, for example, was developed by Mathieson and Wall (1982:15).