SUMMARY. This chapter begins with a brief history of markup technologies and an examination of two of the most commonly encountered markup languages: HTML and XML. The basic structural components of an XML document are described, and the rules for creating “well-formed” documents are discussed. The concept of data modeling and document “validity” will be demonstrated using a simple DTD (Document Type Definition), and several markup examples will follow. The notions of XML as a data interchange system and XSLT as a transformation and display language will be examined. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-8OO-HAWORTH. E-mail address: <[email protected]> Website: <http://www.HaworthPress.com>; © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.]
KEYWORDS. Markup languages, XML, data modeling, document validity, DTD (Document Type Definition)
A B R IE F H ISTO R Y OF MARKUP LANGUAGES
The past 35 years have seen a movement from specific encoding of electronic documents to generic encoding of electronic documents. In specific encoding an electronic document contains control codes that
doi: 10.1300/J104 v40n03_ 10 213
would dictate how the document was to be formatted. These codes were generally specific to one hardware or software configuration and would not work if one moved from, for example, Waterloo script on a main frame to WordPerfect on a DOS machine. Generic encoding, which many trace back to Tunnicliffe’s 1967 presentation on separating con tent from format (Goldfarb 1990, 567), focuses on describing the structural and semantic content of a document, and leaves formatting instructions to external documents and tools thus allowing content to be shared between computing environments.