As discussed in the Introduction, early researchers on Mississippian cultural evolution believed Mississippian culture evolved in a "heartland" (most often thought to be the central Mississippi River valley) and diffused across the Southeast. Increasing evidence of indigenous cultural transformations led that idea to be largely rejected by the mid-1970s. The works listed here are all based in the idea that Mississippian culture evolved across eastern North America in a variety of contexts and within a diversity of indigenous Late Woodland cultures. These works attempt to understand the processes that led to these largescale cultural transformations.