Identities are frequently used in common life by people who seem to imagine that they can draw important conclusions respecting conduct or matters of fact from them. I have heard of a man who gained the double reputation of being a philosopher and a fatalist by the repeated enunciation of the identity " Whatever will be, will be " ; and the Italian equivalent of this makes up an appreciable part of one of Mr. Robert Hichens* novels.. Further, the identity " Life is Life " has not only been often accepted as an explanation for a particular way of living but has even been considered by an authoress who calls herself " Zack " to be an appropriate title for a novel; while " Business is Business " is frequently thought to provide an excuse for dishonesty in trading, for which purpose it is plainly inadequate.