ABSTRACT

One of the driving forces behind capitalism is continuous expansion of the economy. The treadmill of production facilitates continuous economic expansion. However, in order to continuously expand production, the ToP must also expand its consumption of natural resources in the form of raw material and energy. In ToP, the raw materials and energy resources used in production extracted from the environment are referred to as ecological withdrawals. The extraction processes associated with these ecological withdrawals destroy the functioning of local ecosystems, and can contribute to the expansion of larger ecological problems, which together generate ecological disorganization. As the process of ecological withdrawal continues and expands, harms caused to local ecosystems accumulate and are magnified and contribute to global ecological disorganization.