ABSTRACT

As described in Chapter 3, production depends on the extraction of natural resources. Production generates ecological additions that often take the form of pollution, and promotes ecological disorganization. Not all forms of pollution are regulated, however, and of those releases that are, an even smaller proportion are treated as criminal. Nevertheless, a variety of ecological additions are disruptive to ecosystems, and may be toxic, producing a variety of green crimes. The treadmill of production not only produces pollution, it plays a role in determining how the state regulates pollution. For the ToP, ecological additions are often an acceptable consequence of production despite the harms they produce (Hillyard et al. 2004; Brulle and Pellow 2006). Using ToP concepts, the goal of this chapter is to explore a green criminological explanation of the form and shape of environmental laws, the distribution of environmental enforcement within and across political units, and how spatial and temporal issues influence social and state reactions to ecological additions.