Animal abuse is one area of research in green criminology that has drawn considerable attention (e.g., Beirne 1999, 2007; Nurse 2013). Green criminology has opened academic space for criminologists interested in describing the extent of animal abuse, as well as the reasons for that abuse. Much of that research has drawn inspiration from a non-speciesist criminology that was formulated by Beirne (1999). Beirne's work focuses attention on non-human species as appropriate criminological subjects. Animal abuse research has also drawn on moral and philosophical approaches (Benton 1998).