In his proposal for a green criminology, Lynch (1990: 3) noted that “powerful groups manipulate and use race, class, gender and the environment to preserve the basis of their power.” Social movements that represent “civil society” have drawn on these concerns to oppose the power and effects of the ToP. Criminologists, however, have paid little attention to these concerns (except see Nurse 2013; Ellefsen 2012; Myrup 2012; Stretesky et al. 2010). While green criminologists have neglected this issue, ToP theorists have been much more receptive to this area of study (Gould et al. 1996).