An open access fishery illustrates “the tragedy of the commons”, with in many cases fish stocks being depleted 90 percent or more. Table 8.1 shows this for US New England commercial fish landings, comparing the years 1960 (a year quite early in the industrialization of the oceans), the peak year, and the most recent year, 2011. In most cases landings increased dramatically to the peak year, which were typically thirty or more than forty years ago. Following the peak year, landings then crashed by an astonishing 90 percent or more. 1