Many marine scientists think that enough is known about marine biology for the scientific positioning of marine protected areas (MPAs) to protect marine environments, so creating associated biological and economic values. 2 To select from a large literature, Ward, Heinemann and Evans (2001) review 89 research papers and claim this for “high topographic” areas such as coral reefs. Auster and Shackell (2000) claim it for “low topography” areas, as, for example, in the Gulf of Maine. Ward, Heinemann and Evans (2001) point to scientific evidence on a “reserve effect”, a “spillover effect” and an “export effect” of MPAs. The “reserve effect” occurs within an MPA. The improved habitat offered by protection from invasive fishing activity has been recorded to cause greater spawning, settlement, and larval and juvenile survival; lower fish mortality; and greater mean age, density, biomass and reproductive potential. Resulting from these is also a “stability effect” that takes the form of reduced yield variability and chances of population crashes.