Reducing the sizes of U.S. and Russian strategic nuclear forces may be a necessary step toward continued improvement in their shared political climate as well as a useful contribution to military reassurance. But smaller forces are only one step that can be taken toward the objectives of political engagement and nuclear force management. Also important are measures to de-nuclearize or conventionalize those parts of the retaliatory forces that are prospectively superfluous for assured retaliation, and possibly dangerous for future crisis management.