In a report that maps the contours of environmental crime and victimization, Skinnider ( 2011 : 2) observes that ‘historically, research on environmental crime has lacked the theoretical and methodological depth applied to other traditional crimes’. In part this is the result of perceptions of environmental crimes as ‘victimless’, to the extent that ‘they do not always produce an immediate consequence, the harm may be diffused or go undetected for a lengthy period of time’ (ibid.). This is further compounded by the condoning of environmentally harmful activities by governments, industry and in some cases particular communities and society as a whole. As a result, ‘victims of environmental harm are not widely recognized as victims of “crime” and thus are excluded from the traditional view of victimology which is largely based on conventional constructions of crime’ (ibid.).