ABSTRACT

Intervention on environmental harm occurs within a complex legislative environment that incorporates different laws, regulations, conventions and guidelines that relate to local, national, regional and international jurisdictions. Many different issues and trends are covered, relating to air, land and water use, biodiversity, the transport and use of hazardous waste, and carbon emissions. Much of the formal state intervention involves regulatory engagement, rather than criminal-justice proceedings. Moreover, not all harms are criminalized or subject to state prohibition, leaving a space for non-state actors to take part in activities that challenge the lack of state intervention in protecting certain environments (e.g. campaigns against deforestation) or species (e.g. anti-whaling campaigns).