Environmental crime involves transgressions against humans, specifi c environments and animals. Not all environmental harm is seen to be criminal, however. Moreover, even when harm has been criminalized, sanctions and remedies have tended to be inadequate and insuffi cient. How justice is played out in practice is vital to the morale and effectiveness of environmental law enforcers. Lots of hard police work goes into gathering evidence and building cases against polluters, illegal fi shers, transporters of toxic waste, and so on. New technologies and new collaborations with non-police agencies may be required, as well as extensive police resources, time and energy (see Chapters 12 and 13 ).