The third key driver, along with authorship and readership, underpinning the book industry is the system of copyright. This provides an economic incentive for authors to write, and for publishers to invest in the production and marketing of books. Without the protection of copyright, and its enforcement, there would be widespread pirating and plagiarism of books and their contents, with little reward feeding back to the copyright owners or licensees. Copyright in its present form faces signiﬁcant challenges, not just from piracy
but also from the expectations of users, many of whom regard it as acceptable to download content for free – this includes music and ﬁlms. In order to highlight what is happening to books, this chapter examines the experience of other media industries, as well as legitimate challenges to the present system of copyright, which attempt to update the regime in the light of a digitally connected world.